Seizures are unusually stimulated electrical impulses in the brain that induce episodes of disrupted brain function. Epilepsy is a word used to describe recurring seizures induced by the excessive firing of brain cells, which leads to short-circuiting of brain circuits. Epilepsy is not a psychological disorder. Epileptic seizures may be of various severity, with some generating minor spasms and uncontrolled muscle twitches and others causing spasms and uncontrollable muscle twitches. Epilepsy affects around 1% of the world’s population and affects between 6 and 10 persons per 1000 people in India. If you suffer from Epilepsy and need immediate treatment Call our expert Dr. Amit Shah on 9819561456.
At any age, anybody may get epilepsy. It may be caused by injury or abnormality of a brain region. The following are the most typical causes:
- Traumatic brain/head injury
- Tumor of the brain
- Infections caused by viruses
- Infections such as brain abscess, meningitis, encephalitis, and AIDS are examples of infections.
- Changes in the brain that occur as a result of the ageing process
- Alcohol misuse/abuse
- Brain blood vessel abnormalities
- Metabolism problems are apparent at birth.
Symptoms vary from person to person, depending on how the brain functions and how much neuronal discharge is generated. The following are the most prevalent symptoms:
- Staring spells
- Diminished alertness
- Unusual sensation
- Electroencephalogram (EEG) may be repeated. Repeat EEGs, on the other hand, are unlikely to be beneficial if the diagnosis has already been established. A sleep-deprived EEG is conducted when a regular EEG has not helped to diagnose or categorize. When clinical examinations and regular EEG fail to provide a definitive diagnosis, long-term video EEG is performed. It is also employed in patients who are not responding to medical therapy as part of the pre-surgical examination.
- Neuroimaging: This technique is used to detect structural abnormalities that cause specific epilepsies. The preferred imaging inquiry is MRI. It is especially crucial in patients who have any evidence of a focal onset on history, examination, or EEG, or who have ongoing seizures despite first-line treatment. When a diagnosis of Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy (IGE) is established, neuroimaging is not routinely requested. If an MRI is not accessible or is contraindicated, CT scans are utilised to discover underlying pathology.
- Other Tests: Appropriate blood tests (glucose, electrolytes, calcium, renal function, liver function, and urine biochemistry) are evaluated to discover probable reasons and/or any severe comorbidity.
Anti-Epileptic Drugs: This is generally the first medication that the doctor will attempt to start in order to manage the seizures. The goal is to control seizures as completely as possible while minimising pharmacological adverse effects.
Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS): This procedure includes implanting devices to reduce the aberrant electrical activity that causes seizures. They may be considered for persons whose anti-epileptic medicines have failed to control their seizures.
The Ketogenic Diet: This is commonly recommended for children after AEDs have failed to control seizures. It entails tight regulation of fat, protein, and carbohydrate levels and should always be carried out under the guidance of a nutritionist.
Surgery: This is a possibility for patients who have uncontrollable seizures. Despite taking various drugs, around 20 to 30 percent of persons have poorly controlled epilepsy. In such cases, surgery can almost always cure epilepsy. Video-EEG Monitoring and MRI may be used to pinpoint the source of seizures. Seizures are caused by a small portion of the brain that may be readily excised by surgery. In such circumstances, surgery has proven quite effective.